The climate of the Mediterranean region has brought about the evolution of a flora that is extremely variable and quite different to that of any other part of Europe. It is one of the richest in terms of numbers of species, but largely dominated by evergreen trees and shrubs that often have tough , leathery dull green leaves.
Plant growth is restricted mainly to the moist early springtime, which brings an abundant flush of annual flowers, bulbs and orchids, and followed in the late autumn by a less pronounced flush.
Various plants have been used as indicators of the Mediterranean type of climate; these being plants which thrive despite the long hot summers and cool wet winters, but which are susceptible to the effects of frost. Most cannot tolerate temperatures below an average of 3°C during the winter months. Typical of these are the Olive, the Holm and Kermes Oak and various types of citrus such as the Orange and the Aleppo Pine.